Lymphoid Tissue Equivalent Module

The human immune system has two arms: (1) an innate response, which reacts within minutes or days and (2) an adaptive response, which reacts within one to two weeks.

The Lymphoid Tissue Equivalent (LTE) module is designed to simulate the adaptive immune response that occurs in the lymph nodes of the body. The LTE module is a cellular co-culture tissue construct that fits into the well of a microtiter plate. We can use two-dimensional co-cultures or three-dimensional co-cultures depending on the application.

The LTE module brings together the right cell types, in the right places, at the right times to functionally reproduce the environment of a human lymph node. The right cell types are activated dendritic cells from the PTE module and T cells and B cells in the correct ratios. In some variations, we also include follicular dendritic cells. The right places and right times are proprietary, but are designed to mimic conditions in the lymph node where dendritic cells activate T cells, which in turn activate B cells, which then differentiate and select for B cells with the highest affinity antibodies to the antigen presented by the dendritic cell. The LTE module produces activated T cells, antibodies, and cytokines, which mirror the products of a human lymph node. We have shown that the LTE module is superior to PBMC assays. See Case Study. We have also shown that the LTE module generates fully functional T cells and antibodies in vaccine studies. See Case Studies.

The LTE module can also simulate a prime-boost regimen where a vaccine is administered in multiple doses over time.

One important advantage of the LTE module over animal studies is the ability to dissect and understand the immune response to help define correlates of protection.